Friday, December 17, 2021

Working of federalism in Nigeria | IGNOU BPSC 105 Assignment soloution

Federalism in Nigeria refers to the devolution of self-governance by the West African nation of  Nigeria to its federated states, who share sovereignty with the Federal Government. Federalism in Nigeria can be traced to Sir Frederick Lord Lugard , when the Northern and Southern protectorates were amalgamated in 1914. 

Federalism is a system of government in which governmental powers that exists in a country are  shared between central government and component region. It is also defined as the system of  government in which governmental powers are shared between the component units and the central overnment, i.e. the federal government and its components (state and local government) Bernard Bourdillon the Governor-general at that time initiated and laid the foundation of federalism  in Nigeria in 1939 by creating three provinces. He later handed over the constitution to his successor  Arthur Richards and it became the Richards Constitution of 1946. At the beginning of formal British indirect rule in 1901, Nigeria was divided into two regions: Northern and Southern, both of which  were divided into provinces. From 1901 to 1958, the number of regions was increased to three  through both acquisition of territories and partition from existing provinces. However, while native born chiefs and clerks were appointed to govern the provinces, the regions were governed by the  British-appointed colonial authorities. Such regions were made dependent upon the colonial  authorities for martial law, manpower and management of resources. 

With the approach of independence, power over the regions was given to Nigerian-born citizens, and regional legislatures were established. By the time that Nigeria had declared itself a republic and replaced the post of Governor-General with the post of President, a national bicameral parliament  was established and the country was considered a federation of the three regions. The Mid-Western  Region was formed from the Western Region in 1966, and Lagos, the capital, was effectively governed  as an unofficial fourth region outside the bounds of the Western Region.


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